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两大媒体巨头如何看行业未来

布隆伯格:清楚了解自己要做什么;要有独家内容;纸媒不会消失

默多克:互联网时代报纸仍有未来;拥抱智能手机和社交媒体大发展的趋势;内容为王

 

财新视频的《财新时间》节目,最近两期先后播出了对两位世界级媒体巨头——彭博社创办人布隆伯格和新闻集团掌门人默多克的专访。

两个专访的内容很丰富,信息量很大,而作为新闻从业人员,我更感兴趣的是这两位媒体巨头,一位84岁(默多克)、一位73岁(布隆伯格),如何评判当今的媒体行业发展现状和趋势。

在视频中,布隆伯格在谈到这一问题时,主要谈了三个观点。依我个人的理解,我将其概括如下:

  

第一, 始终要坚持主业,自己能做什么、会做什么,要十分清楚,彭博就是做财经信息服务的公司,不会去造汽车;也许提供的产品形式会有变化,文字的、图表的、音频的、视频的,但万变不离其宗,还是提供财经信息服务,专注于这项业务,服务于特定人群。

 

If you had to describe the company, I think we are an information company. We have always been in the financial news business.  We started by displaying news in numbers, then in graphs, then in text, then in sound, then in sound and moving pictures.  So we have evolved, but the fundamentals in who we serve have not changed.

  

 You've got to know what you do well. Just because you can do one business well and run it doesn't mean those skills are transferrable to another one necessarily.  And I think people make that mistake all the time. They forget what got them there. 

    

  Now you have to innovate. You have to change. You have to recognize that your customers' needs are different and what you are doing gets superseded by somebody else that's better.  But, for example, we're not going to go into the business of building automobiles. We know nothing about building automobiles.  We're going to stick to our business.

 

第二,要有独家内容和生产独家内容的能力。现在媒体的内容趋同化严重,如果媒体没有制造独家内容的能力和门槛,也就没有议价能力,就不会有读者来埋单和认账。媒体要有不被同行所复制的核心竞争力。

The challenge is to find unique content that a customer needs. If it's not unique, you have no pricing power. If it's not useful, they don't want it. And the problem that newspapers have is by the time they deliver it to your door, you had seen it on 10 different screens.  And the problem that all of the people who put data on the internet have is it's all the same data.  It's the same stories.  So nobody is going to pay you for what the guy next door is giving away for nothing, and that's why the business models for most people in the media business are so bad. 

  

If you take a look like Netflix, they can have a unique series. If people really like that, they make a lot of money. They don't make any money typically in their news department. Why?  Because it's the same news on every station.  So you have to have something, that people want, but you also have to have it where nobody can copy it easily.

  

第三,纸质媒体不会消失。有很多科学研究显示,相比于浏览屏幕,阅读纸质新闻能够记住更多的信息,特别是一个人有大量信息需要处理时,纸质媒体的阅读还是最有效率的。就他本人而言,也喜欢纸质媒体。各类周刊中有不少好的刊物,而对财经界人士而言,《彭博商业周刊》和《经济学人》是两本最重要的杂志,每周读完这两本杂志,即使不读任何其他东西、不看电视,你也会是下一场晚餐聚会中知道得最多的人。

 

 We provide information that's useful to our customers.  Who are our customers?  The target customers are people in the financial/commercial world,So yes, some of our customers want to get their information in paper. I read all my magazines and newspapers in paper, and there are many scientific studies that show you retain a lot more if you read it on paper versus reading on a screen.  So I don't think paper is going   away.  I think when you have dense information that requires you to focus on that information, paper will be around a very long time. When I go away, like on this trip, I left Sunday night. I took a stack of magazines that thick. I have on the plane been through all of those.

 

I read  BusinessWeek. I read The Economist. I read Time, Newsweek, Scientific American, Smithsonian, The Atlantic, Aviation Week and Space Technology.  I'm a pilot.  Popular Mechanics, Popular Science.  There have got to be a couple. The Week magazine is a good magazine.

 

If you read BusinessWeek and The Economist cover to cover, you wouldn't need to read anything else or ever watch television or anything else.  You would be the best-informed person at your next dinner party if you read both of those magazines. 

 

对于从报业起家的默多克而言,在采访中,他本人流露出对报纸的偏爱,与此同时,他也表现出对于行业趋势变化的高度敏感,像智能手机、社交媒体等也都在他的视野中。他说,智能手机完全改变了世界,改变了人们的交流方式。“智能手机只有8年历史,已经有25亿使用者,再过8年可能就有50亿使用者。全世界都会使用智能手机。从商业运作到家人交流都会有不同。所有都会发生变化。”而社交媒体的崛起也“不可忽视”,“是非常有力的工具”。

  

I was brought up on newspapers. I love newspapers. I love old-fashioned newspapers but today I read them on the Internet because of time. And in New York, I read the morning papers, then I read the London papers on my iPad. So there is no problem. But entertainment is very important.

    

With broadband coming, everything is changing. People now spend four or five hours on their iPhones, their smartphones, which is changing the world totally. I found it with my young children. They are on their iPhones while they are watching television, doing two things at once. That is very common.

 

The fact that now we have 2.5 billion people with smart phones, with access to knowledge all over the world, with access to each other. The government is going to change. The world is going to change. And it’s going to change very fast. We’ve only had smart phones for eight years, and we have 2.5 billion, In another eight years, we will have five billion. The whole world will be on them. They will be doing business differently, they will talk on them, their family will be different. Everything will change.

  

There is no question to the power of social media, which can be abused very badly. We see how the Muslims with ISIS are very cleverly using it to recruit terrorists to kill people. That’s a powerful too. Equally, it can be used in other ways. We see even in America, people standing for election use the Internet a great deal and spreading their message. But that’s just the world getting more complicated, more interesting and going ahead faster. If people exchange ideas faster, then you have faster innovation. We’ve seen incredible innovations in the world in the last 10 or 15 years. It’s in America. It’s now coming very fast in China and you’re going to find it going twice as fast in the next 10 years.

  

默多克认为,在互联网时代,报纸依然有未来。当然,秘诀还在于质量,对于质量好的媒体,人们还是愿意为之付出的,而好的质量,意味着报道要全面、客观、真相,还要有好的观点。总之,媒体就是要做好的内容,做可靠的信源。

他认为,综合新闻领域有很大的机会,很多传统综合新闻类报纸衰落了,内容政治化。而“有力、全面的国际新闻内容有增长的空间。”不过,他亦指出,商业新闻也很重要,全球不同地区不同产业之间正在发生很多事件,对人人都产生影响,这些都在新闻中有体现。

  

除了新闻内容,《华尔街日报》还有3页观点内容。默多克强调要将二者加以区分:“我们很谨慎,在从财经到国际新闻等所有的新闻内容上都尽力保持绝对的客观,报道我们认为的真相。观点是我们报纸非常有力的一部分,但是与新闻内容是分开的”,“报纸有观点,如果这些观点写得很好,非常可靠,人们就会花钱看。”

而对于报纸的网络版,“也会有人窃取内容,把内容重写再发表,在谷歌上都可以看到,但是这些都是不可靠的新闻来源。”

 

   We feel there is a big opportunity there. We think a lot of the years, more general newspapers have quite little bit reputation, have failed, they’re cutting back a lot, they are also very politicized. We feel there is room for really strong, comprehensive world news. Of course, mixed in that, there is a lot of business news, they are great things going on all over the world between different industries, and it’s affecting everybody. That’s all mixed in the news.

 

 We’re very careful but all our news pages, what we call news pages, whether it’s world or technology, absolutely objective. It’s exactly what we feel is true, what’s going on. Then we have three pages in which we express opinions. We have leading people from all over the world writing articles, arguing with each other about what should be happening in the world. We have earned opinions on that. That’s a very strong part of the paper. But it’s separated from the news. Opinions and news are kept apart.

  

 I think it’s a question of quality. If newspapers have opinions, if they are really well-written, if they’re very reliable, people pay for them, then they are viable.

 

 You have newspaper on the Internet which are so good people will pay for it. There are just people who steal things, rewrite them and put them out, like Google. They are not reliable at all.

视频网址见下:

专访布隆伯格 http://video.caixin.com/2015-09-27/100857291.html 

专访默多克 http://video.caixin.com/2015-10-04/100859949.html

  

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